Endocan-microvascular Density in Primary Ovarian Carcinoma

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

2 Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

3 Biostatistics and Research Methodology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.


Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer is among the leading causes of death in women and is driven by angiogenesis. Microvascular density (MVD) can be used to evaluate angiogenesis in carcinomas and thus it can be used as a potential biomarker for ovarian cancer. This study is aimed to establish the association between endocan-MVD with clinicopathological factors in primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: The clinicopathological characteristics were acquired from the medical records filed between January 2008 and December 2018 of 89 epithelial ovarian cancer cases in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. Sectioned samples were analyzed for endocan through immunohistochemistry followed by the quantification of MVD. The association between clinicopathological characteristics and endocan-MVD was analyzed using the Pearson chi-square test and Fischer’s exact test. Results: All cases of epithelial ovarian carcinomas were positive for endocan. The mean ± standard deviation value of endocan-MVD level was 21.6±14.60 microvessels per 200x field. A total of 53 (59.6%) cases had low and 36 (40.04%) had high endocan-MVD values. High endocan-MVD level had a significant association with the older age group (p-value = 0.009), smaller tumor size (p-value<0.001), type II tumor (p-value<0.001), high-grade tumor (p-value<0.001), advanced FIGO stage (p-value=0.002), and presence of tumor recurrence (p-value=0.017). No significant association was found between endocan-MVD and the other clinicopathological characteristics such as race, pre-operative serum CA-125 level, presence of diabetes mellitus, endometriosis, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, and family history of malignancy. Conclusion: Endocan-MVD showed a significant association with age, tumor size, tumor type, tumor grade, FIGO stage, and recurrence in primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Thus, endocan-MVD could be implemented as a reliable marker to predict prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer in the future.


Main Subjects

Volume 23, Issue 3
March 2022
Pages 929-935
  • Receive Date: 07 October 2021
  • Revise Date: 13 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 04 March 2022
  • First Publish Date: 04 March 2022