The Role of Beetroot Extract in Overcoming Chemoresistance of Neoadjuvant Adriamycin Cyclophosphamide Regimen by Targeting Immune Response in Tumor Microenvironment: A Preclinical Study in Mammary Adenocarcinoma Rats

Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

1 Doctoral Program of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

2 Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wahid Hasyim University, Semarang, Indonesia.

3 Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

4 Department of Environmental Health, Public Health Faculty, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

5 Department of Surgical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

6 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

7 Department of Anatomy Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

8 Department of Medicine, Hematology-Medical Oncology Division, School of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objective: This study aims to determine the role of beetroot extract in overcoming the chemoresistance of Neoadjuvant Adriamycin Cyclophosphamide (NAC) regimens with a target immune response in the tumour microenvironment at the pre-clinical stage. Methods: This study was conducted on rats with 7,12-Dimethyl Benz (α) Anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary adenocarcinoma. Adriamycin Cyclophosphamide was given in 4 cycles, whereas beetroot extract was administered three times each cycle. Observations of CD8 T cells and Myeloid Derivative Suppressive Cells (MDSC) expression levels and pathological responses were carried out on tumour tissue taken at the end of the observation. Results: Supplementation of beetroot extract to NAC could significantly increase CD8 T cells and decrease MDSC in the tumour microenvironment. The addition of beetroot extract gave a better pathological response. Conclusion: Beetroot extract enhances the immune response in the tumor microenvironment so that it has the potential to overcome chemoresistance in NAC.
 

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Volume 23, Issue 3
March 2022
Pages 1061-1068
  • Receive Date: 08 December 2021
  • Revise Date: 13 January 2022
  • Accept Date: 04 March 2022
  • First Publish Date: 04 March 2022