Socio-Economic Status and Clinical Breast Examination Screening Uptake: Findings from the First Cohort Study among Iranian Kurdish Women

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 School of Nursing- Camden, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Camden, United States.

3 Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

4 Department of Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

5 Research Instructor, Cognitive Science Research Group, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Alborz branch, Alborz, Iran.

6 Ph.D. Student of Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

7 Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) is utilized as a screening modality in many low income countries without widespread mammography capability. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on CBE screening rates in Iranian Kurdish women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the western region of Iran. A sample of 5,289 Iranian Kurdish women aged 35-65 years old was analyzed. Data were collected from July 2014 to September 2018. The Concentration Index-CI and Concentration Curve were used to estimate the socioeconomic inequalities in CBE rate. The analysis of data was done by STATA software (Version 14). 12.3% of the women had received CBE at least once. CBE rates in the 46-50 age group were higher than in other age groups (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.56-2.71). Women with 6-9 years of education had higher odds ratio of receiving CBE (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.02-1.94). Women living in rural areas were less likely to have received CBE compared to those living in urban areas (OR=0.54; 95% CI = 0.42-0.61). The overall concentration index for receipt of CBE was 0.188. In countries without widespread mammography programs, strategies for the promotion of CBE should focus on the lower SES population.


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