Document Type : Research Articles
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Center, Bach Mai Hospital, Giai Phong road, Ha Noi, Vietnam.
Department of Gastroenterology, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Department of Occupational Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
National Institute of Public Health, Vientiane, Lao PDR.
Department of Surgery, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
Faculty of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.
National Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
Department of Internal Medicine, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Viet Nam.
Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, International University of Health and Welfare, Japan.
Objective: This study investigated the impacts of waterpipe tobacco (WTP) and cigarette smoking on stomach cancer development in Vietnamese men. Methods: A total of 80 stomach cancer cases and 146 controls were recruited in a hospital-based case-control study. Data on sociodemographic, anthropometric characteristics, tobacco smoking, and the dietary pattern was obtained based on a semi-quantitative food frequency and demographic lifestyle questionnaire; and venous anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies were tested by ELISA. Unconditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for potential confounding was performed to estimate the association between target exposures and stomach cancer. Results: Compared to the never tobacco smokers, the risk of stomach cancer significantly increased among tobacco smokers (OR 2.95, 95%CI 1.26-6.90, p=0.013). Those who early started tobacco smoking before 26 years old had a high risk of SC (OR 3.04, 95%CI 1.29-7.20, p for trend=0.011). For types of tobacco, It was increased risk in exclusively cigarette smokers (OR 2.85, 95%CI 1.19-6.85, p=0.019) and in WPT smokers (OR 3.09, 95%CI 1.24-7.68, p=0.015). The daily frequency and longer duration of exclusively WPT or cigarette smoking tended to be significantly higher SC risk. Conclusions: The findings suggest that tobacco smoking, particularly water pipe tobacco smoking, dramatically and independently increased the risk of stomach cancer.