Perceived Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women of an Urban Community in South-Eastern Nigeria

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

2 Department of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria.

3 Department of nursing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria.


Objective: This survey examined the barriers to cervical cancer screening uptake by adult women in Nnewi, a town located in southeast Nigeria. Methods: In this descriptive survey, data were collected data from 379women aged between 21 and 65 years using the adapted version of the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap smear test questionnaire. Results: The major perceived barriers to the practice of cervical cancer screening were fear of the result (2.32±1.05), lack of knowledge of what pap smear is (2.32±0.90), and lack of information about when and where pap smear could be done (2.25±1.07). The logistic regression model showed that the following perceived barriers predicted uptake of cervical cancer screening (P< 0.05): time constraint (P = 0.001, OR= 3.368, CI=  1.455, 4.11); attitude of healthcare workers (P = 0.008, OR= 6.642; CI= 2.764, 18.196); knowledge of test frequency (P = 0.005, OR= 1.443; CI 0.946, 3.811); fear of result(P = 0.001, OR= 3.660, CI=0.679, 4.061); lack of information on when and where pap smear could be obtained (P = 0.010; OR= 6.732; CI= 2.286, 10.490); distance from test centre (P = 0.003; OR= 1.387; CI=0.126, 2.193); not knowing what it is for (P = 0.024, OR10.895, CI = 2.938, 14.401).


Main Subjects

Volume 23, Issue 6
June 2022
Pages 1959-1965
  • Receive Date: 15 December 2021
  • Revise Date: 12 April 2022
  • Accept Date: 14 June 2022
  • First Publish Date: 14 June 2022