Sida rhombifolia Exerts Anti-Proliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effects in Human Liver Cancer HepG2 Cells in Vitro

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

2 Department of Biotechnology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Sari, Iran.


Purpose: Modern research revealed that plants belonging to the Sida rhombifolia family (Malvaceae) contain biologically active compounds that make them prone to discovering and developing anticancer drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the apoptosis effects of S. rhombifolia extracts in HepG2 Cell Line was performed. Methods: The extractions were prepared, and an MTT assay was applied to evaluate its role in decreasing the viability of HepG2 and HFF cells. Phenolic compounds were analyzed using High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). FlowCytometry and RT-qPCR evaluated apoptosis was performed to measure the mRNA expression of pro-and anti-apoptotic mediators. Results: The results can be summarized as EtOAc extract was more cytotoxic against the HepG2 cells (IC50= 364.3 µg/mL) compared to MeOH and HEX extracts (720.2 µg/mL) (560.4 µg/mL) with less cytotoxicity in HFF cells (353.2 µg/mL). The HPLC analysis results revealed most phenolic compounds, such as Epicatechin(1.3 mg/g). The EtOAc extract (300 μg/mL) induced 34% apoptosis in HepG2 cells. RT-qPCR data showed upregulation of the proapoptotic gene (Bax) and increased Bax/BCL-2 ratio by S. rhombifolia EtOAc extract (300 μg/mL). Conclusion: In conclusion, the EtOAc extract of S. rhombifolia is capable of inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells through modulation of the mitochondrial pathway, which explains their antitumor activity.


Main Subjects

Volume 23, Issue 11
November 2022
Pages 3677-3684
  • Receive Date: 18 January 2022
  • Revise Date: 24 August 2022
  • Accept Date: 17 November 2022
  • First Publish Date: 17 November 2022