Document Type : Research Articles
Department of Pathology, KGMU, Lucknow, UP, India.
Department of Surgical Oncology, KGMU, Lucknow, UP, India.
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Medanta Hospital, Lucknow, UP, India.
Introduction: Worldwide, breast cancer (BC) is a prominent cause of death, with a disproportionately high incidence in developed countries. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been reported in up to 90% of the world’s population. Although the exact link of EBV infection and breast carcinoma is not yet determined. The present study was carried out to assess the pathological correlation of EBV infection and BC in women from Northern India. Methodology: In this prospective observational study, 130 patients with histologically proven breast carcinoma were included. After detailed histology, the paraffin block with infiltrative tumor was selected for molecular analysis and further immunohistochemistry (IHC)– EBV PCR and Epstein–Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) IHC. Results: Most of the patients were diagnosed with Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS), followed by Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma + Ductal Carcinoma in situ (IDC + DCIS). The total of 25 tissues of breast carcinoma had positive EBV PCR results (19.23%). The co-relation between the molecular and immunohistochemical results was significant in 11/25 cases that showed immunoexpression for LMP1 by IHC. Sensitivity of 44% and specificity of 100% were observed for LMP1 IHC, having a PPV value of 100% and an NPV of 88%. No significant correlation was observed between age, tumor subtype, grade, stage with respect to EBV infection; however, there was a significant association with nodal metastasis with extra nodal extension in tumors that had EBV infection. Conclusion: The present study establishes an association between LMP1 and patients with EBV positive breast cancer. The authors suggest that additional multicentric studies be conducted to strengthen the reliability and generalizability of the observations of the current study.