Minilaparotomy, Cyfra21-1, and Other Predicting Factors for Suboptimal Cytoreductive Surgery in Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Pilot Study

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

2 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.


Background: Currently, there is no reliable method to predict the result of the primary cytoreduction to decide whether to go on primary cytoreductive surgery or receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This study aimed to identify candidate predicting factors from clinical data, serum biomarkers, CT/MRI imaging, and minilaparotomy for suboptimal cytoreduction in women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Women who were clinically suspicious of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer undergoing primary cytoreductive surgery were recruited. Clinical data, abdominopelvic CT/MRI, and serum biomarkers, including CA125, HE4, and Cyfra21-1, were collected preoperatively. At the start of the surgery, a minilaparotomy incision was made, the peritoneal cavity was assessed, and the operating surgeons gave the impression of whether the optimal cytoreductive surgery would be attainable. Subsequently, the incision was extended as necessary, and the standard cytoreductive surgery was attempted. After the procedure completion, the surgical outcome (optimal vs. suboptimal cytoreduction) and other operative outcomes were recorded. The association between the potential predicting factors and the surgical outcome was examined. Results: Fourteen patients were included in this pilot study. Twelve patients were diagnosed with primary ovarian or fallopian tube cancer, while two had ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer. The optimal cytoreduction was achieved in eight women. After minilaparotomy, the surgeons could predict suboptimal surgery correctly in five out of six cases (OR: 24.12, 95%CI: 2.34-Inf., p<0.01). Moreover, no patient with the finding of rectosigmoid invasion from CT had optimal surgery (OR: 12.96, 95%CI: 1.26-Inf., p=0.03). Lastly, increased serum cyfra21-1(>8 ng/mL) and HE4 (>83 pmol/L) were significantly associated with suboptimal cytoreduction, with OR: 35.00, 95%CI: 1.74-702.99, p=0.02 and OR: 15.00, 95%CI: 1.03-218.30, p=0.05, respectively. Conclusion: The finding of rectosigmoid invasion from abdominal CT, increased serum cyfra21-1 and HE4, and the initial minilaparotomy impression were potentially associated with suboptimal cytoreduction.


Main Subjects

Volume 23, Issue 12
December 2022
Pages 4119-4124
  • Receive Date: 26 May 2022
  • Revise Date: 02 September 2022
  • Accept Date: 02 December 2022
  • First Publish Date: 02 December 2022