Exploring Discomfort Experienced During Chemotherapy in Thai Breast Cancer Patients

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Faculty of Nursing, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand.

2 Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.


Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females worldwide, and a new era is prevalent in the early stage. A qualitative approach explores discomfort experienced during adjuvant chemotherapy among Thai breast cancer patients. Method: The participants were selected by purposive sampling with a variation of two comprehensive cancer centers. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen patients who had completed the second cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy prior to the interview. Results: A qualitative content analysis of data revealed two themes, six categories, and 23 sub-categories. The themes defined discomfort characteristics and factors leading to discomfort. Among all the categories were described physical discomfort, environmental discomfort, psychological discomfort, needing to relieve discomfort, lack of socio-cultural support, and lack of mental support. Conclusion: There is a need to alleviate discomfort, specifically due to Thai beliefs and culture related to patient self-management and nursing care. These findings may be extended to best practice nursing interventions to enhance comfort outcomes for breast cancer patients and elevate patient satisfaction.


Main Subjects

Volume 24, Issue 2
February 2023
Pages 459-465
  • Receive Date: 02 May 2022
  • Revise Date: 17 November 2022
  • Accept Date: 07 February 2023
  • First Publish Date: 07 February 2023