The Direct and Indirect Costs of Cancer among the Lower-Income Group: Estimates from a Pilot and Feasibility Study

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Centre of Health Economics Research, Institute for Health Systems Research, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

2 Centre of Health Policy Research, Institute for Health Systems Research, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

3 Policy and International Relations Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Malaysia.


Background: Healthcare in Malaysia is largely publicly funded, however, cancer could still result in out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses, which may burden the affected patients. This is especially relevant to those in the lower-income group. This pilot study was conducted to estimate the direct and indirect costs of cancer and evaluate the feasibility of obtaining these costs information from the lower-income cancer patients undergoing treatment. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with cancer was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur between September and October 2020. Self-reported data from the patients were collected using face-to-face interviews. Detailed information about cancer-related OOP expenses including direct medical, direct non-medical, and productivity loss in addition to financial coping strategies were collected. Costs data were estimated and reported as average annual total costs per patient. Results: The mean total cost of cancer was estimated at MYR 7955.39 (US$ 1893.46) per patient per year. The direct non-medical cost was the largest contributor to the annual cost, accounting for 46.1% of the total cost. This was followed by indirect costs and direct medical costs at 36.0% and 17.9% of the total annual costs, respectively. Supplemental food and transportation costs were the major contributors to the total non-medical costs. The most frequently used financial coping strategies were savings and financial support received from relatives and friends. Conclusion: This study showed that estimation of the total cost of cancer from the patient’s perspective is feasible. Considering the significant impact of direct non-medical and indirect costs on the total costs, it is vital to conduct further exploration of its cost drivers and variations using a larger sample size. 


Main Subjects

Volume 24, Issue 2
February 2023
Pages 489-496
  • Receive Date: 16 June 2022
  • Revise Date: 20 September 2022
  • Accept Date: 05 February 2023
  • First Publish Date: 05 February 2023