Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women areoften diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arabwomen’s breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database ofSystematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and AsianPacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programsare opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers,professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support,accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.