Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, with a very poor prognosis.Despite significant improvements in diagnosis and treatment in recent years, the long-term therapeutic efficacyis poor, partially due to tumor metastasis, tecurrence, and resistance to chemo-or radio-therapy. Recently, it wasfound that a major feature of tumors is a combination of unrestrained cell proliferation and impaired apoptosis.There are now 8 recogized members of the IAP-family: NAIP, c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP, Survivin, Bruce, Livinand ILP-2. There proteins all contribute to ingibition of apoptosis, and provide new potential avenues of cancertreatment. As a powerful tool to suppress gene expression in mammalian cells, RNAi species for inhibiting IAPgenes cab be directed against cancers. This review will provide a brief introduction to recent developments ofthe application IAP-siRNA in tumor studies, with the aim of inspiring future treatment of HCC.