ADH1B, ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Gene Polymorphic Frequencies among Alcoholics and Controls in the Arcadian Population of Central India

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

Department of Biotechnology, Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar 470 003 M.P. India.

Abstract

Background: Epidemiological research has highlighted the global burden of primary liver cancer cases due to
alcohol consumption, even in a low consumption country like India. Alcohol detoxification is governed by ADH1B,
ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes that encode functional enzymes which are coordinated with each other to remove
highly toxic metabolites i.e. acetaldehyde as well as reactive oxygen species generated through detoxification processes.
Some communities in the population appears to be at greater risk for development of the liver cancer due to genetic
predispositions. Methods: The aim of this study was to screen the arcadian population of central India in order to
investigate and compare the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of alcohol metabolizing genes (ADH1B,
ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1) in both alcoholic (N=121) and control (N=145) healthy subjects. The gene polymorphism
analysis was conducted using PCR and RFLP methods. Results: The allele frequency of ALDH2 *1 was 0.79 and of
ALDH2*2 was 0.21 (OR:1.12; CI (95%): 0.74-1.71). The null allele frequency for GSTM1 was 0.28 (OR:0.85; CI
(95%): 0.50-1.46) and for GSTT1 was 0.20 (OR:1.93; CI (95%): 1.05-3.55). No gene polymorphism for ADH1B was
not observed. The total prevalence of polymorphisms was 3.38% for ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1. Conclusion: The
results of this study suggested that individuals of the Central India population under study are at risk for liver disorders
due to ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms. This results may have significance for prevention of alcohol
dependence, alcoholic liver disorders and the likelihood of liver cancer.

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