Candidate Biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Differential Expression of Oxidative Stress-Related Genes

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Genetics and Molecular Biology Research Unit (UPGEM), São José do Rio Preto Medical School (FAMERP), Avenida Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 5416, 15090-000, São Pedro, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

2 Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, São José do Rio Preto Medical School (FAMERP), Avenida Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 5416, 15090-000, São Pedro, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

3 Department of Pathology, Hospital de Base, Avenida Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 5544, 15090-000, São Pedro, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Background: Alteration in the biotransformation of exogenous compounds can result in production of reactive
oxygen species (ROS), which can predispose cells to malignant transformation in the head and neck. This study aimed
to evaluate the expression of genes involved in antioxidant metabolism in the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Methods: The expression of eighty-four genes was evaluated in OSCC and non-tumor tissues by quantitative real-time
polymerase chain reaction using the TaqMan Gene Expression Array. The biological mechanisms related to
the differentially expressed genes were investigated using Gene – NCBI, KEGG, UNIPROT and REACTOME databases.
Results: Twenty-one genes encoding enzymes involved in antioxidant metabolism were differentially expressed in
the OSCC case. Four genes (ATOX1, PRDX4, PRNP, and SOD2) were up-regulated, and seventeen (ALOX12, CAT,
CSDE1, DHCR24, DUOX1, DUOX2, EPHX2, GLRX2, GPX3, GSR, GSTZ1, MGST3, PRDX1, OXR1, OXSR1,
SOD1, and SOD3) were down-regulated. We identified 14 possible novel biomarkers for OSCC. The differentially
expressed genes appeared related to important biological processes involved in carcinogenesis, such as inflammation,
angiogenesis, apoptosis, genomic instability, invasion, survival, and cell proliferation. Conclusions: Our study
identified novel biomarkers which might warrant further investigation regarding OSCC pathogenesis since the altered
expression in the genes can modulate biological processes related to oxidative stress and predispose cells to malignant
transformation in the oral cavity.

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