Document Type: Research Articles
Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia.
School of Pharmaceutical Science, University Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.
Objectives: The effects of water and 50% ethanolic-water extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (OS) on cell
proliferation and apoptotic activity against uterine leiomyosarcoma (SK-UT-1) cells were investigated. Methods:
Anti-proliferation effect was evaluated through cell cycle analysis whereas apoptotic activity was determined via
screening and quantifying using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. The effect of
extracts on molecular mechanism was studied using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and
Western blotting. Results: Cell cycle flow cytometric analysis showed the induction of cell cycle arrests were behaves
in a p53-independent manner. The examination using fluorescence microscopy and Annexin V flow cytometry revealed
the presence of morphological features of apoptotic bodies. Downregulation of anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl-2) supports
the apoptotic activity of OS extracts although poorly induce PARP-1 cleavage in Western blot analysis. The extracts
also inhibit the SK-UT-1 growth by suppressing VEGF-A, TGF-β1 and PCNA genes, which involved in angiogenesis
and cell proliferation. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that O. stamineus extracts are able to inhibit proliferation
and induced apoptosis of uterine fibroid cells and is worth further investigation.