Bioactive Compounds in the Ethanol Extract of Marine Sponge Stylissa carteri Demonstrates Potential Anti-Cancer Activity in Breast Cancer Cells

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

2 Oncology and Stem Cell Working Group, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

3 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

4 Undergraduate Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

5 Laboratory of Advanced Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

6 Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia.

7 Laboratory of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia.

8 Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objective: Despite advanced treatment options available, drug resistance develops in breast cancer (BC) patients
requiring novel effective drugs. Stylissa carteri, a marine sponge predominantly living in Indonesia territories, has
not been extensively studied as anti-cancer. Therefore, this study targeted to assess the anti-tumor activity of the
ethanol extract of S. carteri in BC cells. Methods: S. carteri was collected from Pramuka Island, at Kepulauan Seribu
National Park, Jakarta, Indonesia and extracted using ethanol. Different BC cells including MDA MB 231, MDA
MB 468, SKBR3, HCC-1954 and MCF-7 cells were treated with this extract for cytotoxic analysis using MTT assay.
Spheroid growth assay and apoptosis assay were conducted in HCC-1954 cells. In addition, cell migration analysis and
synergistic activity with doxorubicin or paclitaxel were conducted in MDA MB 231 cells. This extract was subjected
also for GC-MS analysis. Results: The results show that ethanol extract of S. carteri demonstrated a cytotoxic activity
in BC cells. The IC50 of this extract was lower 15 μg/ml in MDA MB 231, MDA MB 468, SKBR3, and HCC-1954
cells. Moreover, this extract inhibited spheroids growth and induced apoptosis in HCC-1954 cells. It inhibited cell
migration and demonstrated a synergistic activity with doxorubicin or paclitaxel on triggering cell death in MDA MB
231 cells. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis indicated that this extract contained 1,2-Benzenediol, Dibutyl phthalate and
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester. Conclusion: Our preliminary data indicate a potential anti-tumor activity of
ethanol extract of S. carteri in breast cancer cells.

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