Histopathological Patterns and Characteristics of Abnormal Cervical Smear in Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia

Document Type: Short Communications

Authors

1 Department of Pathology, Taibah University, Universities Road, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2 Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Universities Road, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

3 Department of Pathology, Maternity and Children Hospital, Alhezam Road, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Cervical cancer is a major public health problem that continues to be one of the leading female genital cancers
worldwide. In the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), cervical cancer ranks the fifteenth most frequent cancer among
females. This study is the first published research study addressing the screening of cervical cancer in Madinah region
of KSA. Aim: To evaluate the abnormal cytological entities detected by cervical Pap smear in Madinah region of KSA
and to compare the results with other national and international studies. Methods: This retrospective case-control study
was conducted in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Histopathology at the Maternity and Children
Hospital (MCH), Madinah, KSA from January 2013 to December 2015. Results: Of the 1594 cases reviewed, only
38 cases (2.4%) had epithelial cell abnormalities. High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and low grade
squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) were the most common diagnosis categories, and cervical cancer accounted
for 36.8% of the total cases for each, followed by atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) found
in (15.9%). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC ) was found in (5.3%) of the cases. Patients with abnormal epithelial
changes had higher parity (P=0.021) and presented more with a complaint of postcoital bleeding (P<0.0001), tend to
have abnormal cervical appearance (P=0.004), more likely bleeding on touch (P=0.001) and associated with cervical
erosion (P=0.014). Conclusion: The study showed a relatively low prevalence of epithelial cell lesions. These lesions
were mainly squamous cell lesions harbored by females who have an abnormal cervical appearance, and those with
high parity who were lacking cervical screening program.

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