Document Type: Research Articles
Student Research Committee, Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Student Research Committee, Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Objective: Diet quality is known to influence cancer risk. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is one of the most frequently used measures of diet quality. However, the association between HEI-2015 and breast cancer risk is not known. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the association between HEI-2015 and breast cancer risk. Methods: A case-control study comprising 134 breast cancer patients and 265 cancer-free controls were conducted. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which the HEI-2015 score was calculated. Logistic regression was used to derive the odds ratios (ORs) for measuring the association between HEI-2015 scores and breast cancer risk. Results: Subjects in the top quartile of HEI-2015 had a 46% lower chance of breast cancer compared with subjects in the bottom quartile (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.30, 0.98). After adjustment for potential confounders such as age, age at menarche, oral contraceptive drug use, menopausal status, marital status, body mass index, smoking and education level, the association between HEI-2015 score and a lower risk of breast cancer was enhanced (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.16, 0.65). Conclusion: We successfully demonstrated that a higher HEI-2015 score was associated with a reduced breast cancer risk.