Document Type: Research Articles
Faculty of Allied Science, Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand.
Chakri Naruebodindra Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Samut Prakan, Thailand.
Division of Anatomy, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
Thammasat University Research Unit in Nutraceuticals and Food Safety, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
Objectives: The study was to investigate anti-migration and invasion effects of astaxanthin (ATX), a natural carotenoid derivative distributed in marine environments, against A172 human glioblastoma cells. Materials and Methods: Cell viability after ATX treatment was measured by MTT assays. Tumor cell migration and invasion were observed by scratch and Boyden chamber assays, respectively. Expression of MMP-2 and activity of MMP-9 were observed by immunoblotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. Results: ATX up to 150 µM was not toxic to A172 cells at 48 h post-treatment. In contrast, ATX at 50 and 100 µM significantly decreased migration and invasion of A172 cells at 24 and 48 h post-treatment. Metastatic-reducing effect of ATX is associated with the reduction of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: This finding indicated that ATX has anti-migration and invasion effects against human glioblastoma cells and might be applicable for the protection against metastasis of glioblastoma.