A Case-Control Study of Meat Mutagens and Colorectal Cancers in Viet Nam

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

2 School of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

3 Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Viet Nam.

4 Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, International University of Health and Welfare, Japan.


Objective: The aim was to examine the association between heterocyclic amines 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo pyridine (PhIP) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Viet Nam. Methods: We performed a case-control study for 512 colorectal cancer patients with the histopathological confirmation and 1,096 hospital controls. We collected information on lifestyle, diet, and cooking methods from participants by trained interviewers using the validated questionnaires. We used data of PhIP concentration in cooked beef analyzed by the LC/MS/MS and cooking questionnaire to estimate the daily intake of PhIP. We divided the estimated amount of PhIP (ng/person/day) into three levels of non-intake (the reference), medium, and high to estimate the Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (OR, 95%CI). Results: The median intake of PhIP (ng/person/day) was 18ng and 102.8ng for medium and high PhIP intake, respectively. There was a significant association between PhIP intake and the risk of colorectal cancer. The adjusted OR (95%C), high intake vs. non-intake, were 4.89 (3.03, 7.89), p_trend  


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