Investigations of Phytoconstituents, Antioxidant and Anti-Liver Cancer Activities of Saueda monoica Forssk Extracted by Microwave-Assisted Extraction

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.

2 Ministry of Education, General Directorate of Education in Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.

3 Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Applied Sciences, University of Samarra, Iraq.


Background: Wild edible plants are good sources for bioactive compounds, vitamins, and minerals with various applications. They can play a role in supporting the immune system and are highly beneficial as resources. Suaeda monoica Forssk is a wild edible plant that grows in Iraq and it’s biological activities have not yet reported. Methods: Saueda monoica Forssk bioactive compounds were extracted by a microwave-assisted extraction method using ethanol as a solvent, and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The biological activities were evaluated via antioxidant, anti-liver-cancer, antibacterial, and toxicity tests in vitro. Results: The results of GC-MS analysis showed that there were about 20 bioactive compounds. The most abundant compound was N,N-Dimethylglycine methyl ester, followed by 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, n-Hexadecanoic acid, and N,N-Dimethylglycine. The antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of the plant showed a significant IC50. The extract of S. monoica against liver cancer cells (HCAM) showed significant toxicity. Flow cytometric analysis showed a significant induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrested at G1 phase. Conclusions: The results indicated the significance of the components of Iraqi S. monoica Forssk by MAE method as a potential food supplement in nutrition systems to prevent liver cancer and enhance the liver’s defense against diseases.


Main Subjects

Volume 21, Issue 8
August 2020
Pages 2349-2355
  • Receive Date: 12 May 2020
  • Revise Date: 22 June 2020
  • Accept Date: 25 August 2020
  • First Publish Date: 25 August 2020