Use and Applicability of the Gail Model to Calculate Breast Cancer Risk: A Scoping Review

Document Type : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


1 Health Sciences Center, State University of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.

2 Department of Medicine, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.


Objective: To perform a scoping review of the applicability of the Gail model in different countries for different ethnicities. Methods: The review was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist and search strategies based on the PICOS approach. The reviewed articles were included if they were published between 2013 and 2018 in English, Portuguese, or Spanish; were original articles available in full online; and described the use of the Gail model. The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science data bases were searched. Results: A total of 38 articles eligible for analysis were identified, of which 16 used the Gail model to assess breast cancer risk in women, eight analyzed the applicability of this tool in their population, seven compared the tool and/or modified it according to the specific risk factors of their population, and seven cited the model in determining eligibility for chemoprevention. Conclusion: The Gail model has different applicabilities Greater effectiveness and breast cancer risk are found in developed countries.


Main Subjects

Volume 23, Issue 4
April 2022
Pages 1117-1123
  • Receive Date: 24 February 2021
  • Revise Date: 13 May 2021
  • Accept Date: 19 April 2022
  • First Publish Date: 19 April 2022