Risk Factors for Multiple Myeloma: Evidence from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study


This study assessed the association of multiple myeloma (MM) with age, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), physicalactivity, occupational history, and medical history for a Japanese cohort of 46,157 men and 63,541 women aged 40-79 years followed during 1988-2003 years. Cox proportional hazard model was mainly used to estimate the age andsex adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of MM including 95% confidence interval (CI) for both sexes. Same model, adjustedfor age, was also used for each sex. In total, 98 MM deaths (men=49 and women=49) was observed for both sexes.Higher age groups (60-69 and 70-79 years) experienced significantly higher unadjusted HR of MM than the agegroup of 40-49 years. Men revealed significantly higher age-adjusted MM than women (HR=1.5; 95% CI=1.0-2.2).For both sexes, higher BMI of ≥30 kg/m2 (HR=2.8; 95% CI=1.0-7.7), walking ≤30 minutes/day (HR=2.0; 95% CI=1.2-3.4), worried about personal relationship in working place (HR=2.3; 95% CI=1.3-4.2), restricted own pace in workingplace (HR=1.9; 95% CI=1.0-3.4), and history of peptic ulcer (HR=1.7; 95% CI=1.0-2.7) significantly increased ageand sex adjusted MM risk. Some of the above-mentioned significant associations became insignificant for age adjustedsex specific analyses. However, these findings should be validated by further epidemiologic studies in Japan beforegeneralization.