Clastogenic Potential of Ruta graveolens Extract and a Homeopathic Preparation in Mouse Bone Marrow Cells


Ruta graveolens belonging to family Rutaceae has long been traditionally used as a medicinal plant as well asa flavoring agent in food. However, very little data are available on the toxicity of the plant. This report presentsevidence on the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of an extract of Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C, a homeopathicpreparation. Various types of chromosomal aberrations were noted in bone marrow cells after treatment. Thepercentage of aberrated cells in 4the 00mg/kgb.wt extract administered group was found to be 21% and with1000mg/kg.b.wt it was 31%. The 23% for the Ruta 200C treated group was also elevated as compared to the3%for untreated animals. In addition, bone marrow cells had higher incidence of micronuclei induction whentreated with the extract (400mg and 1000mg/kg body weight) and 20μl/animal Ruta 200C for 30 days.Administration of the extract (1000mg/kg.b.wt) over a period of 30 days also resulted in damage to cellular DNAas evidenced by comet formation where the comet parameters such as percentage DNA in tail, tail length, tailmoment of the bone marrow cells were increased several fold over control values. The comet tail moment of thebone marrow cells increased from 4.5 ± 2.5 to 50.2 ± 25.2 after the extract treatment. Administration of 20μl/animal Ruta 200C for 5 consecutive days increased the tail moment to 11.7 ± 2.9. These results indicate that Rutagraveolens and Ruta 200C may induce genotoxicity in animals.