Our previous study indicated an association of chili pepper consumption with gallbladder cancer (GBC) inthe presence of gallstones (GS) in Chile. We investigated whether or not a similar association was present inHungary, where mortality from GBC is high and chili peppers are frequently consumed. In a case-controlstudy, we compared 41 female GBC patients with GS and 30 gender and GS-matched hospital controls. Trainedstaff interviewed all subjects to determine socioeconomic status, family history, past history and life style habits(smoking, alcohol intake, dietary habits and elimination habits). Because mean ages differed significantly betweenthe case and control groups, age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. A shorter education period (< 10years / ≥16 years) was indicated to be a risk factor (age-adjusted OR (95%CI): 3.2 (1.2-8.7)). In addition, theintake of Hungarian hot pepper (yes / no) was found to be significantly higher in the GBC cases than in controls(age-adjusted OR (95%CI): 8.4 (2.3-30.4)). There were no differences between the case and control groups forother variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis retained only Hungarian hot pepper consumption as asignificant independent risk factor for GBC. Its age-adjusted OR was 16.2 (95%CI: 2.1-126.2), while therewere no differences associated with low education, frequent consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, lowsocioeconomic status or smoking. Hungarian hot pepper consumption was identified as a risk factor for GBCby multivariate logistic regression analysis.