A Case-control Study of Risk Factors for Lung Cancer in Mumbai, India


In the year 2010, it is estimated that nearly 1.35 million new cases and 1.18 million deaths with lung canceroccurred. In India, among males, lung cancer rates vary across the country which has encouraged us to conduct acase-control study to study the risk factors. The present unmatched hospital-based case-control study conductedat Tata Memorial Hospital included subjects registered between the years 1997-99. There were 408 lung ‘cancercases’ and 1383 ‘normal controls. Data on age, tobacco habits, occupational history, dietary factors, tea, coffeewere collected by the social investigators. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining theodds ratio for risk factors. In the study, cigarette smoking (OR=5.2) and bidi smoking (OR=8.3), as well asalcohol consumption (OR=1.8), demonstrated dose-response relationships with lung cancer risk. Among thedietary items, only red-meat consumption showed 2.2-fold significant excess risk. Consumption of milk showeda 60% reduction in risk; while coffee showed a 2-fold excess risk for lung cancer. In addition, exposure to useof pesticides showed a 2.5-fold significant excess risk for lung cancer.