Prostate Cancer and Metabolic Syndrome: Is there a link?


Metabolic syndrome has become quite prevalent within our society. Over the past two decades, the prevalenceof metabolic syndrome has sharply increased worldwide and it has become a major public health problemin several countries. It is associated with the global epidemic of obesity and diabetes mellitus and imposesnumerous cardiovascular risks. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men, surpassed onlyby non-melanoma skin cancer. A considerable body of evidence exists suggesting that some components of themetabolic syndrome have been associated with the risk of prostate cancer. These components include obesity, anabdominal fat distribution, and hyperinsulinemia. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most widely usedtherapeutic modality in prostate cancer. It changed the body composition and lipid profile of men with prostatecancer. Androgen deficiency is associated with increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, increased production of proinflammatory factors, and increased thickness of the arterial wall andcontributes to endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this review is to evaluate the association between metabolicsyndrome and prostate cancer and to discuss the implications of androgen deficiency in men with cardiovascularrisk factors. A comprehensive literature search was carried out with the use of PubMed from 1980 through 2011,and relevant articles pertinent to metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer are evaluated and discussed.