Objective: To summarize and evaluate various urinary markers for early detection, diagnosis and followupof human bladder cancer.
Methods: A MEDLINE and PUBMED search of the latest literature on urinarymarkers for bladder cancer was performed. We reviewed these published reports and made a critical analysis.
Results: Most urinary markers tend to be less specific than cytology, yielding more false-positive results, butdemonstrating an advantage in terms of sensitivity, especially for detecting low grade, superficial tumors. Sometumor markers appear to be good candidates for early detection, diagnosis, and follow-up of human bladdercancer.
Conclusion: A number of urinary markers are currently available that appear to be a applicable forclinical detection, diagnosis, and follow-up of bladder cancer. However, further studies are required to determinetheir accuracy and widespread applicability.