Purpose: Numerous studies have evaluated the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln gene polymorphismand hepatocellular carcinoma risk in the Chinese Han population. However, the results have been inconsistent.We therefore here examined whether the XRCC1 Arg399Gln gene polymorphism confers hepatocellularcarcinoma risk by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, Google scholar and China National KnowledgeInfrastructure databases were searched for eligible articles in English and Chinese that were published beforeApril 2012. Results: 6 studies involving 1,246 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 1,953 controls wereincluded. The association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln gene polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma inthe Chinese Han population was significant under GG vs AA (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.94). Limiting theanalysis to the studies with controls in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the results were persistent and robust. Conclusions: In the Chinese Han population, the XRCC1 Arg399Gln gene polymorphism is associated with anincreased hepatocellular carcinoma risk.