Histopathologic Characterization of Prostate Diseases in Madinah, Saudi Arabia


Aims: To delineate the histopathological pattern of prostate diseases and to highlight age variations in prostatespecific antigen (PSA) values and histopathological features. Materials and
Methods: A retrospective reviewwas made of all prostate biopsy reports seen between January 2006 and December 2013 at the King FahadHospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Prostate lesions were tabulated and classified into benign and malignantgroups. Histological scoring of adenocarcinomas was accomplished using the Gleason system. PSA values werecorrelated with Gleason scores.
Results: Of 417 prostate lesions reviewed, 343 (82.3%) were benign and 74(17.7%) were malignant, giving a benign to malignant ratio of 4.6:1. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (both with andwithout inflammation) was the commonest prostatic lesion and accounted for 80.3% of all cases and 97.6% of allbenign cases. The age range was 20 to 97 years with a mean of 69.2 years and a peak age group at 70-79 years.Seventy one cases of adenocarcinoma accounted for 95.9% of the total of 74 malignant tumors. It showed an agerange of 44 to 95 years, a mean age of 70.9 years and peak prevalence in the 80-89 year age group. Gleason scoreseven was the most frequent (39.4%) in occurrence. Most adenocarcinomas, 41 cases (57.7%), were moderatelydifferentiated (Gleason score of 5-7). PSA values ranged widely between 16-1,865ng/ml with a mean of 363.4ng/ml.Elevated PSA (>100ng/ml) levels were found in 53 (81.6%) patients. There was a statistically significant positivecorrelation between serum PSA level and Gleason score (p=0.0304).
Conclusions: Prostatic lesions constitute asignificant source of morbidity among adult males in Madinah. Benign prostatic hyperplasia was the commonestbenign prostatic lesion and adenocarcinoma was the commonest histological subtype of prostatic cancer.