Association between Vegetable, Fruit and Carbohydrate Intake and Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Physical Activity


Background: Although the nutritional may exert effect on the breast cancer risk, it is not clear whetherthe role diet is the same in sedentary and physically active women. The aim of this study was to evaluate theassociation between fruit, vegetable and carbohydrate intake and the risk of breast cancer among Polish womenconsidering their physical activity level. Materials and
Methods: A case-control study was conducted that included858 women with histological confirmed breast cancer and 1,085 controls, free of any cancer diagnosis, aged28-78 years. The study was based on a self-administered questionnaire to ascertain physical activity, dietaryintake, sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive factors, family history of breast cancer, current weightand high, and other lifestyle factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimatedin unconditional logistic regression analyses including a broad range of potential confounders.
Results: Withcomparison of the highest vs lowest quartile of intake, strong significant associations were observed for totalvegetables (OR=0.37, 95%CI=0.20-0.69 P for trend <0.01 and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.29-0.96, P for trend <0.02),and total fruits (OR=0.47, 95%CI=0.25-0.87, P for trend <0.05 and OR=0.47, 95%CI=0.24-0.90, P for trend<0.02) among women characterized by the lowest and the highest quartile of physical activity. No associationswere observed for total carbohydrate intake. Additional analysis showed a positive association for sweets anddesert intake among women in the lowest quartile of physical activity (OR=3.49, 95%CI=1.67-7.30, P for trend<0.009) for extreme quartiles of intake comparing to the referent group.
Conclusions: The results suggest thata higher consumption of vegetable and fruit may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, especiallyamong women who were low or most physically active throughout their lifetimes. These findings do not supportan association between diet high in carbohydrate and breast cancer. However, a higher intake of sweets anddeserts may by associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among women who were less physically active.