TRAIL Based Therapy: Overview of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Based Delivery and miRNA Controlled Expression of TRAIL


Rapidly increasing number of outstanding developments in the field of TRAIL mediated signaling have revolutionized our current information about inducing and maximizing TRAIL mediated apoptosis in resistant cancer cells. Data obtained with high-throughput technologies have provided finer resolution of tumor biologyand now it is known that a complex structure containing malignant cells strictly coupled with a large variety of surrounding cells constitutes the tumor stroma. Utility of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as cellular vehicles has added new layers of information. There is sufficient experimental evidence substantiating efficient gene deliveries into MSCs by retroviral, lentiviral and adenoviral vectors. Moreover, there is a paradigm shift in molecular oncology and recent high impact research has shown controlled expression of TRAIL in cancer cells on insertion of complementary sequences for frequently downregulated miRNAs. In this review we have attempted to provide an overview of utility of TRAIL engineered MSCs for effective killing of tumor and potential of using miRNA response elements as rheostat like switch to control expression of TRAIL in cancer cells.