Background: Development of gastric cancer (GC) is a multistep process that requires alterations in the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, occurring over several decades. The p53 tumor suppressor protein is involved in cell-cycle control, apoptosis and DNA repair. One of the most important regulators of p53 is MDM2, which acts as a negative regulator in the p53 pathway. Based on the key role of p53 and MDM2 in tumor suppression, polymorphisms that cause change in their function might affect cancer risk. We therefore elevated associations of the polymorphisms of p53 (R72P) and MDM2 (SNP309) with GC in Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients with gastric cancer and 100 controls were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh gastric samples. Genotyping of the p53 and MDM2 genes was performed using allele specific PCR(AS-PCR). Results: There was no significant difference between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism distribution in control and patient groups (p=0.54), but the G allele of MDM2 was found to be over-represented in patients (p=0. 01, Odds Ratio=2. 08, 95% Confidence Interval= 1.37-4.34). Conclusions: The p53 R72P seems not to be a potential risk factor for development of GC among Iranian patients, but our data suggest that MDM2 SNP309 might modify the risk related to GC.