Effect of Trichostatin A on Anti HepG2 Liver Carcinoma Cells: Inhibition of HDAC Activity and Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling


Purpose: To investigate the effect of deacetylase inhibitory trichostatin A (TSA) on anti HepG2 livercarcinoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. Materials and
Methods: HepG2 cells exposed todifferent concentrations of TSA for 24, 48, or 72h were examined for cell growth inhibition using CCK8,changes in cell cycle distribution with flow cytometry, cell apoptosis with annexin V-FTIC/PI double staining,and cell morphology changes under an inverted microscope. Expression of β-catenin, HDAC1, HDAC3, H3K9,CyclinD1 and Bax proteins was tested by Western blotting. Gene expression for β-catenin, HDAC1and HDAC3was tested by q-PCR. β-Catenin and H3K9 proteins were also tested by immunofluorescence. Activity of Renillaluciferase (pTCF/LEF-luc) was assessed using the Luciferase Reporter Assay system reagent. The activity oftotal HDACs was detected with a HDACs colorimetric kit.
Results: Exposure to TSA caused significant dose-andtime-dependent inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation (p<0.05) and resulted in increased cell percentages in G0/G1 and G2/M phases and decrease in the S phase. The apoptotic index in the control group was 6.22±0.25%,which increased to 7.17±0.20% and 18.1±0.42% in the treatment group. Exposure to 250 and 500nmol/L TSA alsocaused cell morphology changes with numerous floating cells. Expression of β-catenin, H3K9and Bax proteins wassignificantly increased, expression levels of CyclinD1, HDAC1, HDAC3 were decreased. Expression of β-cateninat the genetic level was significantly increased, with no significant difference in HDAC1and HDAC3 genes. Inthe cytoplasm, expression of β-catenin fluorescence protein was not obvious changed and in the nucleus, smallamounts of green fluorescence were observed. H3K9 fluorescence protein were increased. Expression levels of thetranscription factor TCF werealso increased in HepG2 cells following induction by TSA, whikle the activity oftotal HDACs was decreased.
Conclusions: TSA inhibits HDAC activity, promotes histone acetylation, and activatesWnt/β-catenin signaling to inhibit proliferation of HepG2 cell, arrest cell cycling and induce apoptosis.