Tobacco (Kretek) Smoking, Betel Quid Chewing and Risk of Oral Cancer in a Selected Jakarta Population


Purpose: This study aimed to determine the association between tobacco consumption (kretek) and betel quidchewing with oral cancer risk. Materials and
Methods: A total of 81 cases of oral cancers were matched with162 controls in this hospital-based study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and details of riskhabits (duration, frequency and type of tobacco consumption and betel quid chewing) were collected. Associationbetween smoking and betel quid chewing with oral cancer were analysed using conditional logistic regression.
Results: Slightly more than half of the cases (55.6%) were smokers where 88.9% of them smoked kretek. Afteradjusting for confounders, smokers have two fold increased risk, while the risk for kretek consumers and thosesmoking for more than 10 years was increased to almost three-fold. Prevalence of betel quid chewing among casesand controls was low (7.4% and 1.9% respectively). Chewing of at least one quid per day, and quid combinationof betel leaf, areca nut, lime and tobacco conferred a 5-6 fold increased risk.
Conclusions: Smoking is positivelyassociated with oral cancer risk. A similar direct association was also seen among betel quid chewers.