Background: RB1 (retinoblastoma 1) was reportedly one of the major determinative factors for sensitivity totaxanes in previous studies. In this study, we investigated the influence of RB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) on the efficacy of platinum-taxane regimens in advanced NSCLC patients. Materials and Methods: 234cases of patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with first-line platinum-taxane agents were enrolledin this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from patients’ peripheral blood samples using a QIAamp DNAMaxi Kit, and genotyped by iSelect HD Bead-Chip. Results: Regression analyses were conducted through theunivariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model in the 234 patients. The results showed that of theeight RB1 tagSNPs, only rs4151510 was a positive predictive factor for the advanced NSCLC patients treatedwith platinum taxanes regimen. The patients with G/G genotype of RB rs4151510 had longer overall survival(OS) than the non-G/G genotype (p=0.018). The histology was also correlated with OS in the whole advancedNSCLC patients. Three tagSNPs of RB1, rs4151510, rs4151465, rs9568036 were significantly associated withOS in the advanced NSCLC patients with squamous cell histology using Kaplan-Meier overall survival analysisstratified by histology. Conclusions: RB1 genomic variants were correlated with the efficacy of platinum-taxanesregimen. RB rs4151510 is an independent factor of the prognosis of NSCLC patients receiving platinum-taxanechemotherapy.