Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer: a Case-control Study in Faisalabad, Pakistan


Background: Prostate cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among males in Pakistan but verylittle is known about risk factors among the Pakistani population. Therefore a hospital-based, case-control studywas carried out in Faisalabad to identify potential risk factors. Materials and
Methods: This study was basedon 140 prostate cancer cases and 280 normal controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and95% confidence intervals for odds ratios to assess the relationship between prostate cancer and different riskfactors.
Results: Family history of prostate cancer, age, smoking, obesity, consumption of red meat and frequentuse of fat items significantly increased the prostate cancer risk (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of:7.32; 1.79-29.8; 16.9, 5.60-50.8; 2.47, 1.17-5.18; 5.79, 2.66-12.6; 2.71, 1.07-6.91; and 3.39, 1.47-7.83, respectively.On the other hand, more consumption of fruit, fluid intake and better lifestyle (physical activity) significantlyreduced the risk of developing prostate cancer with odd ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of:0.27, 0.11-0.61; 0.05, 0.02-0.12; and 0.28, 0.13- 0.58.
Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested thatage, family history of prostate cancer, smoking, obesity, fluid intake, frequent use of fat items, consumption offruits and better lifestyle might be associated with prostate cancer among Pakistani males.