Accuracy of Visual Inspection with Acetic acid in Detecting High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Thai Women with Minor Cervical CytologicalAbnormalities


Purpose: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in detecting high-gradecervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in pre- and post-menopausal women with atypical squamous cells ofundetermined significance (ASC-US) and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) Papanicolaou (Pap)smears. Materials and
Methods: Two hundred women (150 pre-menopausal and 50 post-menopausal) with ASCUSand LSIL cytology who attended the colposcopy clinic, Thammasat University Hospital, between March 2013and August 2014 were included. All women underwent VIA testing and colposcopy by gynecologic oncologists.Diagnostic values of VIA testing including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negativepredictive value (NPV) for detecting high-grade CIN were determined using the histopathology obtained fromcolposcopic-directed biopsy as a gold standard.
Results: VIA testing was positive in 54/150 (36%) pre-menopausalwomen and 5/50 (10%) post-menopausal women. Out of 54 pre-menopausal women with positive VIA testing,15 (27.8%) had high-grade CIN and 39 (72.2%) had either CIN 1 or insignificant pathology. Ten (10.4%), 43(44.8%) and 43 (44.8%) out of the remaining 96 pre-menopausal women with negative VIA testing had highgradeCIN, CIN 1 and insignificant pathology, respectively. Out of 5 post-menopausal women with positive VIAtesting, there were 4 (80%) women with high-grade CIN, and 1 (20%) women with insignificant pathology. Outof 45 VIA-negative post-menopausal women, 42 (93.3%) women had CIN 1 and insignificant pathology, and 3(6.7%) had high-grade CIN. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the VIA testing were 59.4%, 76.2%, 32.2%and 90.8%, respectively (60%, 68.8%, 27.8% and 89.6% in pre-menopausal women and 57.1%, 97.7%, 80%and 93.3% in post-menopausal women).
Conclusions: VIA testing may be used as a screening tool for detectinghigh-grade CIN in women with minor cervical cytological abnormalities in a low-resource setting in order tolower the rate of colposcopy referral.