Biomarkers for Evaluation of Prostate Cancer Prognosis


Prostate cancer, with a lifetime prevalence of one in six men, is the second cause of malignancy-related deathand the most prevalent cancer in men in many countries. Nowadays, prostate cancer diagnosis is often basedon the use of biomarkers, especially prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which can result in enhanced detectionat earlier stage and decreasing in the number of metastatic patients. However, because of the low specificityof PSA, unnecessary biopsies and mistaken diagnoses frequently occur. Prostate cancer has various featuresso prognosis following diagnosis is greatly variable. There is a requirement for new prognostic biomarkers,particularly to differentiate between inactive and aggressive forms of disease, to improve clinical managementof prostate cancer. Research continues into finding additional markers that may allow this goal to be attained.We here selected a group of candidate biomarkers including PSA, PSA velocity, percentage free PSA, TGFβ1,AMACR, chromogranin A, IL-6, IGFBPs, PSCA, biomarkers related to cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, PTEN,androgen receptor, cellular adhesion and angiogenesis, and also prognostic biomarkers with Genomic tests fordiscussion. This provides an outline of biomarkers that are presently of prognostic interest in prostate cancerinvestigation.