Differentially Expressed Genes in Metastatic Advanced Egyptian Bladder Cancer


Background: Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Gene expression profiling usingmicroarray technologies improves the understanding of cancer biology. The aim of this study was to determinethe gene expression profile in Egyptian bladder cancer patients. Materials and
Methods: Samples from 29 humanbladder cancers and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were analyzed by cDNA microarray, with hierarchicalclustering and multidimensional analysis.
Results: Five hundred and sixteen genes were differentially expressedof which SOS1, HDAC2, PLXNC1, GTSE1, ULK2, IRS2, ABCA12, TOP3A, HES1, and SRP68 genes were involvedin 33 different pathways. The most frequently detected genes were: SOS1 in 20 different pathways; HDAC2 in 5different pathways; IRS2 in 3 different pathways. There were 388 down-regulated genes. PLCB2 was involvedin 11 different pathways, MDM2 in 9 pathways, FZD4 in 5 pathways, p15 and FGF12 in 4 pathways, POLE2in 3 pathways, and MCM4 and POLR2E in 2 pathways. Thirty genes showed significant differences betweentransitional cell cancer (TCC) and squamous cell cancer (SCC) samples. Unsupervised cluster analysis ofDNA microarray data revealed a clear distinction between low and high grade tumors. In addition 26 genesshowed significant differences between low and high tumor stages, including fragile histidine triad, Ras andsialyltransferase 8 (alpha) and 16 showed significant differences between low and high tumor grades, likemethionine adenosyl transferase II, beta.
Conclusions: The present study identified some genes, that can be usedas molecular biomarkers or target genes in Egyptian bladder cancer patients.