Trends and Analysis of Cancer Incidence for Common Male and Female Cancers in the Population of Punjab Province of Pakistan during 1984 to 2014


Background: The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Cancer Registry (PAECCR) program has madeavailability of a common cancer incidence database possible in Pakistan. The cancer incidence data from nuclearmedicine and oncology institutes were gathered and presented. Materials and
Methods: The cancer incidencedata for the last 30 years (1984-2014) are included to describe a data set of male and female patients. The dataanalysis concerning occurrence, trends of common cancers in male and female patients, stage-wise distribution,and mortality/follow-up cases is also incorporated for the last 10 years (2004-2014).
Results: The total populationof provincial capital Lahore is 9,800,000. The total number of cancer cases was 80,390 (males 32,156, females48,134). The crude incidence rates in PAECCR areas were 580.8/105 during 2010 to 885.4/105 in 2014 (males354.1/105, females 530.1/105). The cancer incidence rates for head and neck (15.70%), brain tumors (10.5%),and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 9.53%) were found to be the highest in male patients, whereas breastcancer (46.7%), ovary tumors (6.80%), and cervix (6.31%) cancer incidence rates were observed to be the mostcommon in female patients. The age range distribution of diagnosed and treated patients in conjunction with thepercentage contribution of cancer patients from 15 different cities of Punjab province treated at the Institute ofNuclear Medicine and Oncology, Lahore are also included. Leukemia was found to be the most common cancerfor the age group of 1-12 years. It has been identified that the maximum number of diagnosed cases were foundin the age range of 51-60 years for males and 41-50 years for female cancer patients.
Conclusions: Overallcancer incidence of the thirty years demonstrated that head and neck and breast cancers in males and in femalesrespectively are the most common cancers in Punjab province in Pakistan, at rates almost the highest in Asia,requiring especial attention. The incidence of brain, NHL, and prostate cancers among males and ovarian andcervix cancers among females have increased rapidly. These data from a major population of Punjab provinceshould be helpful for implementation of appropriate planning, prevention and cancer control measures and fordetermination of risk factors within the country.