Evaluation of Common Risk Factors for Breast Carcinoma in Females: a Hospital Based Study in Karachi, Pakistan


Background: Breast malignancies are one of the leading causes of deaths in females worldwide. There are anumber of risk factors associated with breast cancer but in Karachi Pakistan there are insufficient data available.Materials and
Methods: A case control study was conducted on females in age group between 30-80 years. Thisstudy was accomplished by retrospective data collection in Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan.A total of 108 females with primary malignancy of breast were included along with 108 matched controls.Relationship of various factors with disease was studied using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with95 % confidence intervals.
Results: A total of 14 variables were analyzed and based on and 7 were found to berisk factors: old age, family history of breast cancer, family history of other carcinomas, personal history ofbreast carcinoma, early age of menarche, older age of mother at first delivery and lower number of children.Five factors, parity, breast feeding, history of oral contraceptive pills intake, past history of oophorectomy andhysterectomy showed protective associations. One variable, use of hormonal replacement therapy, showed acontroversial link and one other, marital status, was not significant in this study.
Conclusions: It is concluded thatmost of the well-known risk factors for breast cancer are also associated with the disease in the female populationof Karachi, Pakistan. High risk patients should be the focus with the help of this study so that screening can bemore effective for early diagnosis before clinically evident breast malignancy.