Association between Smoking Status and Food and Nutrient Consumption in Japanese: a Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study


Background: In Japan, in comparison with the rest of the world the death rate of lung cancer is low althoughthe smoking rate is relatively high. This is the so-called “Japanese smoking paradox”. A healthy diet is proposedto attenuate the risk without quitting smoking. We here examined the relationships between smoking status(SS) and the consumption of food and nutrient in Japan. Materials and
Methods: Totals of 5,587 men and 2,718women were divided into three (non-smokers, smokers and heavy smokers) and two (non-smokers and smokers)groups, respectively, according to pack-year, which represents the amount of smoking over a long period. Foodand nutrient consumption was estimated with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using general linearmodels, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each group in men and women, separately.
Results:In men, SS was positively related to consumption of rice, 3 alcoholic beverages, carbohydrate, alcohol andother 8 foods/nutrients (p< 0.05 for all) and negatively to those of protein animal, fat, fatty acids, dietary fiber,isoflavones and 36 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). In women, SS was positively associated with intakeof 13 foods/nutrients, while being negatively associated with those of rice, energy, dietary fiber, and 14 otherfoods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all).
Conclusions: Our results support lower intake of vegetables and fruits rich inantioxidants, which are thought as preventive factors for many diseases, in smokers.