Factors Associated with Adherence to Colorectal Cancer Screening among Moderate Risk Individuals in Iran


Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in Iran. Secondary prevention (colorectal cancer screening) is important and a most valuable method of early diagnosis of this cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the factors associated with colorectal cancer screening adherence among Iranians 50 years and older using the Health Belief Model. Materials and
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013. A convenience sample of 200 individuals aged 50 and older was recruited from the population at outpatient clinics in teaching hospitals. Data gathering tools were the Champions health belief model scale (CHBMS) with coverage of socio demographic background and CRC screening information. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with colorectal cancer screening adherence.
Results: The mean age of participants was 62.5± 10.8 and 75.5% were women. A high percentage of the participants had not heard or read about colorectal cancer (86.5%) and CRC screening (93.5%). Perceived susceptibility to colorectal cancer had the lowest percentage of all of the subscales. Participants who perceived more susceptibility (OR =2.99; CI 95%: 1.23-5.45) and reported higher knowledge (OR =1.29; CI 95%: 1.86-3.40) and those who reported fewer barriers (OR =.37; CI 95%:.21- .89), were more likely to have carried out colorectal cancer screening.
Conclusions: Our findings indicated that CRC knowledge, perceived susceptibility and barriers were significant predictors of colorectal cancer screening adherence. Strategies to increase knowledge and overcome barriers in risk individuals appear necessary. Education programs should be promoted to overcome knowledge deficiency and negative perceptions in elderly Iranians.