Helicobacter Species are Possible Risk Factors of Cholangiocarcinoma


Several infectious agents are considered to be causes of cancer in human, mainly hepatitis B and C viruses, high-risk human pailloma viruses, Helicobacter pylori, Clonorchis sinensis, and Opisthorchis viverrini. Here we described the evident research and the association between Helicobacter spp. and biliary tract cancer particularly cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Global epidemiological studies have suggested that Helicobacter spp. are possible risk factors for biliary tract diseases. Molecular studies support a linkage of Helicobacter spp. with CCA development. H. pylori, H. bilis, and H. hepaticus, are found in CCA, but the most common species are H. pylori and H. bilis. The type of CCA are associated with Helicobacter spp. include extrahepatic CCA, and common bile duct cancer. Up to the present, however, the results from different regions, materials and methods, sub-sites of cancer, and controls have not been consistent, thus introducing heterogeneity. Therefore, a comparison between co-Helicobacter spp.-CCA in the countries with low and high incident of CCA is required to settle the question. Furthermore, clarifying variation in the role of Helicobacter species in this CCA, including pathogenesis of CCA through enhanced biliary cell inflammation and proliferation, is necessary.