Transarterial Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: a Comprehensive Review with Current Updates and Future Directions


Hepatocellular cancer is a very common cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Only 30-40% of patients present with early-stage disease open to curative treatments, such as resection or transplantation, while others can only undergo local therapies or palliative care. Various trans-arterial approaches have been used for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients who need a down-staging to liver transplantation, and who are not candidates for transplantation or radiofrequency ablation. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), transarterial embolization (TAE), drug-eluting beads, and radioembolization have been used for locoregional control, and have been shown to prolong the overall survival when compared with supportive care. In this review, we discuss patient selection, pre- and post-procedure imaging, techniques, safety, and clinical outcomes related to these therapies. Newer advances with future directions in various fields related to trans-arterial therapies are also discussed.