Spectrum of the WHO Classification De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Experience from Southern Pakistan


Department of Hematology and Blood Bank, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan


Background: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal disorder of hemopoeitic stem cells, characterized by infective hematopoiesis, peripheral cytopenias along with hypercellularity of marrow and marked dysplastic features. Our aim was to study the spectrum of the WHO classification in adult Pakistani patients with MDS at disease presentation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, extending from January 2010 to December 2014. Patient data were retrieved from the maintained archives. Results: Overall, 45 patients were diagnosed at our institution with de novo MDS during the study period. There were 28 males and 17 females. Age ranged between 18 and 95 years with a mean of 57.617.4 years. The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. According to the WHO classification, 53.3% had refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, 22.2% had refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, 4.4% each had refractory anemia with excess of blasts-1 and II and 15.5% had MDS unclassified. The main presenting complaints were generalized fatigue (60%), fever (33.3%), dyspnea (15.5%), bleeding (13.3%) and weight loss (11.1%). Physical examination revealed pallor in 37.7%, followed by petechial and purpuric rashes in 20% of patients. Hemoglobin was and 14 (31.1%) respectively. Conclusions: MDS in our patients presents at a relatively young age. Refractory c ytopenia with multilineage dysplasia was the dominant disease variant in our setting.