p53, Cyclin D1, p21 (WAF1) and Ki-67 (MIB1) Expression at Invasive Tumour Fronts of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Development of Local Recurrence


Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan


Background: Expression of p53, cyclin D1, p21 (WAF1) and Ki-67 (MIB1) was evaluated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to test whether levels of these markers at invasive tumour fronts (ITFs) could predict the development of local recurrence. Materials and Methods: Archived paraffin-embedded specimens from 51 patients with T1/T2 tumours were stained immunohistochemically and analysed quantitatively. Local recurrence-free survival was tested with Kaplan-Meier survival plots (log-rank test) using median values to define low and high expression groups and with a Cox's proportional hazards model in which the expression scores were entered as continuous variables. Results: The assessment of expression of all markers was highly reliable, univariate analysis showing that patients with clear surgical margins, with low cyclin D1 and high p21 expression at the ITF had the best local recurrence-free survival. Multivariate analysis showed that these three parameters were independent prognostic factors but that neither p53 nor MIB1 expression were of prognostic value. Conclusions: Assessment of p53, cyclin D1, p21 (WAF1), and Ki-67 (MIB1) at the ITF could help to predict local recurrence in early stage oral squamous cell carcinoma cases.