Hormone Use is Associated with Lymphovascular Invasion in Breast Cancer


Department Medical and Health Sciences, University of Linkoping, Kalmar, Sweden


Background: Risk of developing breast cancer increases with short breastfeeding and the use of hormones. The prognosis of breast cancer is better if the tumours are hormone receptor positive. Since breast feeding affects estrogen and progesterone receptors, we wanted to investigate how such reproductive factors as breastfeeding and the use of hormones interact with known prognostic markers and specific tumour characteristics in women with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 women treated for breast cancer from a larger cohort completed a questionnaire on breastfeeding, number and age at births and use of hormones. A logistic regression analysis was made to search for connections between known prognostic markers on the one hand (type of cancer, grade, tumor size, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, lymphovascular invasion and DNA-ploidy) and reproductive data, breastfeeding, and hormone use on the other. Results and Conclusions: Hormone use, but not breastfeeding, was significantly associated, also on multivariate analysis, with the prognostic variable lymphovascular invasion, connected to a worse prognosis. No other hormone use or breast feeding correlations with prognostic variables were found.