Digestive Neuroendocrine Tumor Distribution and Characteristics According to the 2010 WHO Classification: a Single Institution Experience in Lebanon


Hematology-Oncology Department, Faculty of medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon


Background: Gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN) are relatively rare tumors, not equally distributed in the gastrointestinal system. In 2010, a revised version of the WHO classification of GEP-NENs was published. This study reports for the first time the distribution and characteristics of GEP-NENs in a Lebanese population. Materials and Methods: This descriptive retrospective study concerns all the digestive neuroendocrine tumors with their characteristics diagnosed in Hotel Dieu de France in Beirut, Lebanon from 2001 to 2012, all the pathology reports being reanalyzed according to the latest WHO 2010 classification. The characteristics and features of GEP-NEN analyzed in this study were age, gender, grade and site. Results: A total of 89 GEP-NENs were diagnosed, representing 28.2% of all neuroendocrine tumors. The mean age of GEP-NEN patients was 58.7 years and the M/F sex ratio was 1.2. The primary localization was as follows: 21.3%(19) pancreatic, 18% (16) gastric, 15.7% (14) duodenal, 11.2% (10) appendix, 10.1% (9) intestinal, 10.1% (9) colorectal (7.9% colonic and 2.2% rectal), 5.6% (4) hepatic, 2.2% (2) ampulla, 1.1% (1) esophageal and 7.9%(5) NOS digestive (metastatic with unknown primary). Of the 89 patients with GEP-NEN, 56.2% (50) were diagnosed as grade I, 11.2% (10) as grade II, 20.2% (18) as grade III and 12.4% (11) were considered as mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinomas (MANEC). Conclusions: This study, one of the rare examples based on the 2010 WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors in the literature, indicates that in the Lebanese population, all duodenal and appendicular tumors are G1 and the majority of MANEC tumors are gastric and pancreatic tumors. Moreover, more duodenal tumors and fewer rectal tumors were encountered in our study compared to European reports.